Psychotherapy – Brandon Skenandore

What is psychotherapy?
A systematic interaction between a therapist and a client that brings psychological principles to bear on influencing the client’s thoughts, feelings, or behavior to help that client overcome abnormal behavior or adjust to problems in living

How have people with psychological problems and disorders been treated throughout the ages?
Asylum: an institution for the care of the mentally ill
mental hospitals, community mental health movement

How do psychoanalysts conduct a traditional Freudian psychoanalysis?
Psychoanalysis: Freud’s method of psychotherapy
Catharsis: in psychoanalysis, the expression of repressed feelings and impulses to allow the release of the psychic energy associated with them
Free association: in psychoanalysis, the uncensored uttering of all thoughts that come to mind
Resistance: the tendency to block the free expression of impulses and primitive ideas – a reflection of the defense mechanism of repression
Interpretation: an explanation of a client’s utterance according to psychoanalytic theory
Transference: responding to one person (such as a spouse or the psychoanalyst) in a way that is similar to the way one responded to another person (such as a parent) in childhood
Wish fulfillment: a primitive method used by the  id to attempt to gratify basic instincts
Manifest content: in psychodynamic theory, the reported content of dreams
Latent content: in psychodynamic theory, the symbolized or underlying content of dreams

How do modern psychodynamic approaches differ from traditional psychoanalysis?
Ego analyst: a psychodynamically oriented therapist who focuses on the conscious, coping behavior of the ego instead of the hypothesized, unconscious functioning of the id

What is Carl Rogers’s method of client-centered therapy?
Client-centered therapy: Carl Rogers’s method of psychotherapy, which emphasizes the creation of a warm, therapeutic atmosphere that frees clients to engage in self-exploration and self-expression
Unconditional positive regard: acceptance of the value of another person, although not necessarily acceptance of everything the person does
Empathic understanding: ability to perceive a client’s feelings from the client’s frame of reference. A quality of the good client-centered therapist
Frame of reference: one’s unique patterning of perceptions and attitudes, according to which one evaluates events
Genuineness: recognition and open expression of the therapist’s own feelings

What is Fritz Perls’s method of Gestalt therapy?
Gestalt therapy: Fritz Perls’s form of psychotherapy, which attempts to integrate conflicting parts of the personality through directive methods designed to help clients perceive their whole selves
Examples: The dialogue, I take responsibility, Playing the projection

What is behavior therapy?
Systematic application of the principles of learning to the direct modification of a client’s problem behaviors

What are some behavior-therapy methods for reducing fears?
Systematic desensitization: Wolpe’s method for reducing fears by associating a hierarchy of images of fear-evoking stimuli with deep muscle relaxation
Hierarchy: an arrangement of stimuli according to the amount of fear they evoke
Modeling: a behavior-therapy technique in which a client observes and imitates a person who approaches and copes with feared objects or situations

How do behavior therapists use aversive conditioning to help people break bad habits?
Aversive conditioning: a behavior-therapy technique in which undesired responses are inhibited by pairing repugnant or offensive stimuli with them
Rapid smoking: an aversive conditioning method for quitting smoking in which the smoker inhales every 6 seconds, thus rendering once-desirable cigarette smoke aversive

How do behavior therapists apply principles of operant conditioning in behavior modification?
Token economy: a controlled environment in which people are reinforced for desired behaviors with tokens (such as poker chips) that may be exchanged for privileges
Successive approximations: in operant conditioning, a series of behaviors that gradually become more similar to a target behavior
Self-monitoring: keeping a record of one’s own behavior to identify problems and record successes
Behavior rehearsal: practice
Feedback: in assertiveness training, information about the effectiveness of a response
Biofeedback training (BFT): the systematic feeding back to an organism of information about a bodily function so that the organism can gain control of that function

How can you use behavior therapy to deal with temptation and enhance your self-control?
Functional analysis: a systematic study of behavior in which one identifies the stimuli that trigger problem behavior and the reinforcers that maintain it

What is cognitive therapy?
A form of therapy that focuses on how clients’ cognition (expectations, attitudes, beliefs, etc.) lead to distress and may be modified to relieve distress and promote adaptive behavior

What is Aaron Beck’s method of cognitive therapy?
Clients may selectively perceive the world as a harmful place and ignore evidence to the contrary, overgeneralize on the basis of a few examples, magnify the importance of negative events, or engage in absolutist thinking (looking at the world in black and white rather than in shades of gray)

What is Albert Ellis’s method of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT)?
Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT): Albert Ellis’s form of therapy that encourages clients to challenge and correct irrational expectations and maladaptive behaviors

What are the advantages and disadvantages of group therapy?
economical, provides more information / life experience, appropriate behavior receives group support, assuring to affiliate with people with similar problems, group members provide hope for other members, opportunity to practice social skills in nonthreatening atmosphere

What are encounter groups? What are their effects?
A type of group that aims to foster self-awareness by focusing on how group members relate to each other in a setting that encourages open expression of feelings

What is family therapy?
a form of therapy in which the family unit is treated as the client

What kinds of problems do researchers encounter when they conduct research on psychotherapy?
Meta-analysis: a method for combining and averaging the results of individual research studies
Problems in running experiments on psychotherapy, problems in measuring outcomes of therapy, clinical questions cannot be answered through research

What do we know about the effectiveness of psychotherapy?
Generally effective, outcome measures reflect treatment

What kinds of drug therapy are available for psychological disorders?
Antianxiety drugs – generalized anxiety or panic attacks
rebound anxiety: anxiety that can occur when one discontinues use of a tranquilizer
Antipsychotic drugs – schizophrenia
Antidepressants – major depression
selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): antidepressant drugs that work by blocking the reuptake of serotonin by presynaptic neurons
Lithium: Bipolar disorder, side effects such as hand tremors, memory impairment, excessive thirst & urination

What is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)?
Treatment of disorders like major depression by passing an electric current (that causes a convulsion) through the head
Patients are given a sedative (drug that relieves nervousness or agitation or puts one to sleep)

What is psychosurgery? How is it used to treat psychological disorders?
surgery intended to promote psychological changes or to relieve disordered behavior
prefrontal lobotomy: the severing or destruction of a section of the frontal lobe of the brain

What do we know about the effectiveness of biological therapies?
ECT is a good “last resort” for people who do not responds to antidepressant drugs