Biology Lab Practical Final Review Notes

Biology Lab Practical Final Review Notes – Brandon Skenandore

Class Ophuroidea (brittle stars)

-Predators / deposit feeders at various depths

ubiquitious in worlds oceans, although seldom seen!

Arms radiate clearly from a central disc (brittle = regenerate, easy to pull off)

fast, agile – swim using arms (not tube feet)

Ambulacral groove is internal

 

Class Echinoidea (urchins, sand dollars)

Lack arms, surrounded by interlocking

 

 

Phylum Chordata

Hallmark Traits of Chordates

3 subphylums – Urochordata, Cephalochordata, Vertebrate

 

Chordate Subphyla:

Subphylum Urochordata (sea squirts/ tunicates)

-Tadpole-like larbae exhibit all 4 hallmark features of chordatesAdults = Tunic – cellulose sac containing a sieve basket (gill slits)

Subphylum Cephalochordata

 

Vertebrates – 4 general characteristixs

 

Class cephalospidomorphi (lamprey)

Oldest known true vertebrates

Extremely unique morphology

Jawless

Gill slits = pores

 

Class Reptilia

 

Know 4 hallmark treaits of Chordates

Closed Circulatory systems – Singl loop-2chambered

Double loop, 3 chambered

Double loop, 4 chambered

 

Class Chondrichthyes (sharks, skates, rays)

-Cartilaginous fishes – lighter, more flexible

-Heterocercal tail = more thrust/dynamics

Placoid scales

Buoyancy = oily liver

 

Class Actinoptergii

-Bony endoskeleton

Several bony rays give support to paired fins

Buoyancy-swim bladder

 

Sarcoptergii – Limgbs, diphercercal tail – eight extant pecies

 

Tetrapods

Class Amphibia (frogs, salamanders, etc.)

-All species closely tied to water

Cutaneous respiration

Non-amniotic egg

Bioindicators

 

Class Reptilia

Skull types:

  1. Anapsid
  2. 2. Synapsid
  3. 3. Diapsid

1st vertebrates to live entirely on land

1. Scaly skin

2. Amniotic egg,

3. Lungs are solely responsible for respiration

Ectothermic

 

Frog dissection: Respiratory system & digestive tract – did have lungs but small, small heart, big lobes to liver, not bright red, gray liver, bulbous gallbladder, stomach to small intestine, first bend had pancreas, kidneys against back, not shaped like kidney, but integrated through back. Spleen is on one side – non-paired organ.

 

Class Mammalia

3 characteristics:

  1. Hair
  2. 2. Mammary glands

 

Modes of development

Monotremes

Marsupials

Placental

 

Reproductive systems displayed in Mammals

  1. Monagamy – one exlusive mate
  2. Polygamy – multiple mates

 

Skull Dentition

Herbivores: large flat molars (grinding) with reduced canines

Carnivores: sharp teeth – canines, tearing

Omnivores: combination of the two, both in moderation

Piscivores: same dentition (crocodiles, dolphins)

 

Horns vs antlers – I know this already

 

 

Birds:

Vertebrate Flight

Has evolved 3 times

Pterosaurs –dinosaurs

birds – theropod dinosaurs

bats – mammals – order chiroptera

 

Wing structures

Bones are homologous, but wings are analogous

 

Aerodynamics

Airfoil – curved surface – airflow

Difference is pressure above and below

Lift must exceed mass

Pressure inversely related to velocity

Must have thrust to overcome drag

Airflow must be laminar = smooth

Too much turbulence = stall

Increased angle of attach increase lift, but increases turbulence

Evolution has balanced all of this

 

4 deneral wing modifications for fligh

Allula – smooths air over surface to decrease turbulence

Wing slots (fingers) – also adjust flow

flapping – thrust

Angle of attack

Light weight – hollow bones, feathers

 

Wing shapes

Duck – Swept – long-tappered – fast, low lift

Owl – Elliptical – short broad – maneuverable

Example – jet fighter vs attack plane

 

Pterosaurs

Elongated 4h digit for wing

Rhamphorhynchoids – long tail, short skull, bony teeth

Pteradactyloids – lack tail, long slender skull (FIGURE 5)

 

Class Aves (Birds)

Evolved from dinosaurs

Theropod dino during Jurassic Period – velocoraptor

Archeopteryx – shared characteristics

Dino – teeth, flat sternum, long bony tail

Birds – feathers, wings, furcula = wishbone

Much debate on gliding vs jumping – Arboreal vs cursorrial

 

Egg-laying amniotes – Development

Altricial: poorly developed, need care/heat/etc

Precocial; move and feed on own

Don’t fly until at least 80-90% or mor of adults size

 

Diet

Pollinators

Insects – keep in check

Seeds – dispersal agent

Fruit

Meat – predators and scavengers

 

Metabolism

High requirements for flight

Specialized air flow through lungs

Body temperature high – protein denaturing

Blood pressure high – embolism

 

Class mammalia

Order Chiroptera – Bats

Closely related to shrews

Stretched skin between limbs

Manny elongated digits

Suborder microchiroptera

ASmall insectivores

Nocturnal

Sonar-detect prey-larynx

 

Suborder megachiroptera

Large

fruit bats

Diurnal/nocturnal

Lesser sonar capabilities – why? Tongue

 

Dissection

-Flight bones –

Muscles – pectoralus supracoracoideus, laissimus dorsi) and function

-Leg bones

 

Fins of fish:

Dorsal, adipose, caudal, anal, pelvic, pectoral – lateral line

 

Structures – gills, operculum, heart, liver, stomach, caecae, spleen, intestine, air bladder TURNS GRAY WHEN LEFT OUT, Kidney is always back against the spine, even with the fish.

 

Think about the relative position of the organs

 

RAT HAS DIAPHRAGM

 

-Digestive tract, lungs, heart