Biology Lab Practical Final Review Notes

Biology Lab Practical Final Review Notes – Brandon Skenandore

Class Ophuroidea (brittle stars)

-Predators / deposit feeders at various depths

ubiquitious in worlds oceans, although seldom seen!

Arms radiate clearly from a central disc (brittle = regenerate, easy to pull off)

fast, agile – swim using arms (not tube feet)

Ambulacral groove is internal


Class Echinoidea (urchins, sand dollars)

Lack arms, surrounded by interlocking



Phylum Chordata

Hallmark Traits of Chordates

3 subphylums – Urochordata, Cephalochordata, Vertebrate


Chordate Subphyla:

Subphylum Urochordata (sea squirts/ tunicates)

-Tadpole-like larbae exhibit all 4 hallmark features of chordatesAdults = Tunic – cellulose sac containing a sieve basket (gill slits)

Subphylum Cephalochordata


Vertebrates – 4 general characteristixs


Class cephalospidomorphi (lamprey)

Oldest known true vertebrates

Extremely unique morphology


Gill slits = pores


Class Reptilia


Know 4 hallmark treaits of Chordates

Closed Circulatory systems – Singl loop-2chambered

Double loop, 3 chambered

Double loop, 4 chambered


Class Chondrichthyes (sharks, skates, rays)

-Cartilaginous fishes – lighter, more flexible

-Heterocercal tail = more thrust/dynamics

Placoid scales

Buoyancy = oily liver


Class Actinoptergii

-Bony endoskeleton

Several bony rays give support to paired fins

Buoyancy-swim bladder


Sarcoptergii – Limgbs, diphercercal tail – eight extant pecies



Class Amphibia (frogs, salamanders, etc.)

-All species closely tied to water

Cutaneous respiration

Non-amniotic egg



Class Reptilia

Skull types:

  1. Anapsid
  2. 2. Synapsid
  3. 3. Diapsid

1st vertebrates to live entirely on land

1. Scaly skin

2. Amniotic egg,

3. Lungs are solely responsible for respiration



Frog dissection: Respiratory system & digestive tract – did have lungs but small, small heart, big lobes to liver, not bright red, gray liver, bulbous gallbladder, stomach to small intestine, first bend had pancreas, kidneys against back, not shaped like kidney, but integrated through back. Spleen is on one side – non-paired organ.


Class Mammalia

3 characteristics:

  1. Hair
  2. 2. Mammary glands


Modes of development





Reproductive systems displayed in Mammals

  1. Monagamy – one exlusive mate
  2. Polygamy – multiple mates


Skull Dentition

Herbivores: large flat molars (grinding) with reduced canines

Carnivores: sharp teeth – canines, tearing

Omnivores: combination of the two, both in moderation

Piscivores: same dentition (crocodiles, dolphins)


Horns vs antlers – I know this already




Vertebrate Flight

Has evolved 3 times

Pterosaurs –dinosaurs

birds – theropod dinosaurs

bats – mammals – order chiroptera


Wing structures

Bones are homologous, but wings are analogous



Airfoil – curved surface – airflow

Difference is pressure above and below

Lift must exceed mass

Pressure inversely related to velocity

Must have thrust to overcome drag

Airflow must be laminar = smooth

Too much turbulence = stall

Increased angle of attach increase lift, but increases turbulence

Evolution has balanced all of this


4 deneral wing modifications for fligh

Allula – smooths air over surface to decrease turbulence

Wing slots (fingers) – also adjust flow

flapping – thrust

Angle of attack

Light weight – hollow bones, feathers


Wing shapes

Duck – Swept – long-tappered – fast, low lift

Owl – Elliptical – short broad – maneuverable

Example – jet fighter vs attack plane



Elongated 4h digit for wing

Rhamphorhynchoids – long tail, short skull, bony teeth

Pteradactyloids – lack tail, long slender skull (FIGURE 5)


Class Aves (Birds)

Evolved from dinosaurs

Theropod dino during Jurassic Period – velocoraptor

Archeopteryx – shared characteristics

Dino – teeth, flat sternum, long bony tail

Birds – feathers, wings, furcula = wishbone

Much debate on gliding vs jumping – Arboreal vs cursorrial


Egg-laying amniotes – Development

Altricial: poorly developed, need care/heat/etc

Precocial; move and feed on own

Don’t fly until at least 80-90% or mor of adults size




Insects – keep in check

Seeds – dispersal agent


Meat – predators and scavengers



High requirements for flight

Specialized air flow through lungs

Body temperature high – protein denaturing

Blood pressure high – embolism


Class mammalia

Order Chiroptera – Bats

Closely related to shrews

Stretched skin between limbs

Manny elongated digits

Suborder microchiroptera

ASmall insectivores


Sonar-detect prey-larynx


Suborder megachiroptera


fruit bats


Lesser sonar capabilities – why? Tongue



-Flight bones –

Muscles – pectoralus supracoracoideus, laissimus dorsi) and function

-Leg bones


Fins of fish:

Dorsal, adipose, caudal, anal, pelvic, pectoral – lateral line


Structures – gills, operculum, heart, liver, stomach, caecae, spleen, intestine, air bladder TURNS GRAY WHEN LEFT OUT, Kidney is always back against the spine, even with the fish.


Think about the relative position of the organs




-Digestive tract, lungs, heart