Practical Exam 4 Study Questions – Brandon Skenandore
Lab 12: Echinoderms and Primitive Chordates
What do the phyla Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata have in common?
What are the five classes of Echinoderms? What are the six common names of organisms (one class has two)?
In Echinoderms, what are the calcareous plates that make up the internal skeleton called?
What is the difference between juvenile echinoderms and adult echinoderms (think symmetry)?
What type of vascular system do echinoderms have? What are the water-filled canals with hollow projections from the body wall called? What purpose(s) do these serve?
In the class Crinoidea, what differentiates them from other classes? (think: where is their mouth)? What is the central disc called?
In the Class Asteroidea, is the anus oral or aboral? What is the small button-shaped dot on the starfish called? What purpose does it serve? What is the ambulacral groove?
In the Class Ophiuroidea, what differentiates this class from the Class Asteroidea?
In the class Echinoidea, how is pentaradial symmetry still evident? What is Aristotle’s Lantern? What is another word for the shell?
In the Class Holothuroidea, how are the five ambulacra arranged? What are buccal podia? What do they surround?
What four features do all chordates have in common (although not present in all stages of development)?
What are the three subphyla?
In the subphylum Urochordata, what are tunicates and their features? Do they have any tentacles?
In the subphylum Cephalochordata (lancelets), do they have fins? Do they have tentacles? What is another name for these tentacles, if they have them?
In the subphylum Vertebrata, what are the four additional characteristics?
What is the Class Cephalospidomorphi? What is another name for them? What defining features do these have? They are anadromous. What does this mean? What is their larvae called?
Lab 13: Vertebrates, Part I
What are the eight classes of extant vertebrates? (Four of them are fishes, four are tetrapods)
What composes the Class Chondrichthyes (hint: sharks are in this group)? What is the purpose of placoid scales?
In what class are lobe-finned fishes? What are the two types of fish in this class? What types of animals evolved from these (think Tiktaalik)?
In what class are ray-finned fishes? What are the differences between the chondrosteans and the neopterygians? What are teleosts?
In the Class Reptilia, what animals can be found in this class? Are they ectothermic or endothermic?
In the Class Mammalia, what are some features of synapsids?
What are the major organs looked at on the fish, frog, and rat?
Lab 14: Vertebrates, Part II: Flight
How many times has flight evolved independently? What three types of organisms have developed flight?
What type of dinosaurs did birds descend directly from?
Of the bones and the wings themselves, which of these structures is homologous and which is analogous? Explain.
Explain how lift, mass, thrust, and drag are related.
What is an airfoil? How have birds developed this?
What will happen if the wing’s angle of attack results in turbulent air flow? How is this circumvented in birds?
What two types of wing slots have evolved in birds?
When did pterosaurs exist (what periods)?
What are the two groups of Pterosaurs and how do they differ?
How are modern birds characterized?
What do elliptical wings allow for?
What do swept wings allow for?
What do soaring wings allow for?
What do high lift wings allow for?
What are the two flight muscles called? Where are they located and how are they different from one another?
Where are the three paired bones on the bird (Scapula, coracoid, furcula)? What is the difference between these three bones?
Know about the names of bones & muscles on fig 7, 8, and 9
Know about the digestive tract of the quail
What are the two suborders of bats, and how are they distinguished? (hint: what is echolocation?)